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Wetlands in temperate ecoregions - affected species

Climate change will have impacts on freshwaters through changes in hydrology e.g. through more frequent floods, but mainly through increased temperatures. Water temperature is a main determinant of water quality (such as oxygen concentration) and an increase will lead to chain of events that may affect community composition. In cold ecoregions, for example, extension of the ice-free period and increased water temperature will lead to enhance primary production and eutrophication, desynchronise life cycles and cause physiological problems for cold-adapted species. Cold-water stenothermic species which inhabit alpine stream environments for example are especially vulnerable to warming and snow loss (Brown et al. 2007). In, warmer regions, such as the Mediterranean, normal interannual variations are expected to be more extreme and this together with elevated temperatures and salinities would result in more frequent harsh conditions to the local biota. In central European regions temperature raise is predicted to lead to the extinction of sensitive species, such as several aquatic insects (Stoneflies) and fishes such as the European bullhead (Cottus gobio) (Logez et al., 2012). The spreading of invasive or alien species is also expected to occur in a more rapid way as habitats will become more suitable for invasion and establishment.

This section presents examples of species that according to current scientific literature may be positivly or negativaly affected by climate change (“winners” or “losers”). For each ecosystem type (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ecoregion (cold, temperate and warm) and different organism groups (phytoplankton/macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fish) are presented.

Plants

Alpine Eryngo or Queen of the Alps, Panicaut des Alpes (in France) | Eryngium alpinum

[id: 185]

Common name:

Alpine Eryngo or Queen of the Alps, Panicaut des Alpes (in France)

Scientific name:

Eryngium alpinum

Where to find:

Meadows (moist montane)

Climate change impact:

Though requiring well-watered ground, there is little indication that E. alpinum may be termed riparian. Its vulnerability with the core Alpine area to climate change is unproven.

Response description:

E. alpinum is native to Austria, Liechtenstein, Croatia, France, Switzerland, Italy, and Slovenia though, as a popular garden plant, it is established within and beyond its native range as an escape. A) In France, it is found in 42 localities with Rhone-Alpes and Provence-Alpes-C?te-dÃAzur, with several thousand individuals but with a declining trend. B) In Austria, it extends from Voralberg to Liechtenstein and from Kaernten to Slovenia, with 1,000-2,000 individuals counted and with a declining trend. C) In Switzerland, the area of occurrence is 74 km2, but its native status is not clear, and though the overall status is stable, this situation may be ?buffered? by introductions. D) In the Slovenian Alps are a few small subpopulations scattered, declining and with some locally extinct. E) In Italy, there have also been local extinctions and the plant is now found in eight localities. Subpopulations are declining. The total area of occupancy might be <2,000 km2 (though there is not enough supporting data for this assumption) and the populations have been declining since 2000 and are fragmented in parts of its range, though with little information on subpopulations in the different countries. E. alpinum is found in open habitats such as avalanche corridors or hayfields at altitudes of 1,500-2,000 m asl, mostly on limestone and preferring moist or even wet conditions, such as those within tall herb communities on andplusmn; well-watered ground and well-supplied with nutrients . It is known within 6 types from the Habitats Directive, of which one at least (6430) can be riparian: 4070 Bushes with Pinus mugo and Rhododendron hirsutum, 4080 Sub-Arctic Salix spp. Scrub, 6170 Alpine and subalpine calcareous grasslands, 6230 Species-rich Nardus grasslands, on siliceous substrates in mountain areas (and sub-mountain areas in Continental Europe), 6430 Hydrophilous tall herb fringe communities of plains and of the montane to alpine levels, and 6520 Mountain hay meadows. The main threats are abandonment of alpine pastures and traditional land use, causing habitats to scrub over and open ground to be eliminated. Collection for ornamental purposes and for the seeds leads to population declines. Recreational activities such as skiing are degrading its habitat. Spring grazing could have an impact on the reproductive success.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/162328/0

Ang élique á fruits variables (France) | Angelica heterocarpa

[id: 153]

Common name:

Ang élique á fruits variables (France)

Scientific name:

Angelica heterocarpa

Where to find:

Margins including those within wet forest

Climate change impact:

Strictly riparian species with a limited distribution in the Atlantic Biogeographic Region, this species may be threatened by climate change, especially of this leads to sea-level rise or changes in the flooding regime of the lower reaches of the Loire etc.

Response description:

Found along the western coastline of France, with an extent of occurrence of 25,000 km2, this species has recently been found in 145 localities with >65,000 individuals. The overall population trend is not known, though possible declines in the Loire estuary and SE part of the distribution area are suspected. A. heterocarpa grows along the edges of rivers and estuaries and can be found in the following Habitats Directive habitats: 6430 Hydrophilous tall herb fringe communities of plains and of the montane to alpine levels, and 9100 Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior. The main threats to this riparian species are forest exploitation without replanting, infrastructure development in urban/industrial areas (ports), and modification of the hydrology via construction of embankments, creating shipping lanes or reclamation of land from sea.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/162184/0

Bog-asphodel | Narthecium ossifragum

[id: 64]
[ID-fwe: 264]

Click to enlarge

Common name:

Bog-asphodel

Scientific name:

Narthecium ossifragum

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Loser

Climate change impact:

Increased temperature, eutrophication

Response description:

Native bog species, suffering from several stresses such as eutrophication and changes in wetland hydrology. Climate change is an extra stressor and may worsen hydrological alterations of wetlands.

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Bog-rosemary | Andromeda polifolia

[id: 60]
[ID-fwe: 506]

Click to enlarge

Common name:

Bog-rosemary

Scientific name:

Andromeda polifolia

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Loser

Climate change impact:

Increased temperature, eutrophication

Response description:

Native bog species, suffering from several stresses such as eutrophication and changes in wetland hydrology. Climate change is an extra stressor and may worsen hydrological alterations of wetlands.

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Carpathian Tozzia | Tozzia carpathica

[id: 231]

Common name:

Carpathian Tozzia

Scientific name:

Tozzia carpathica

Where to find:

Headwater streams

Climate change impact:

Generally associated with very small montane and alpine streams and runnels, this species grows mainly in the Alpine Biogeographic region though over quite a narrow altitudinal band. Its strong association with the riparian zone and limited range suggest that it would be vulnerable to climate change.

Response description:

The natural range of T. carpathica lies in the Carpathians and Balkan Mountains, being found in Poland, Slovakia, Romania, Ukraine, Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece: a) In the Ukraine Carpathians it grows in the subalpine belt from 1,140-1,890 m asl, being recorded in 8 locations, b) In Slovakia its distribution is patchy ? 20 locations, with >100 plants at most sites, c) In Poland, the species occurs mainly in the Beskidy Mts ? population of 10000 stems, d) In north-central Greece, it is found very locally in the Varnous Mts and north Pindos, with an extent of occurrence of only 300 km2 and occupancy of 12 km2, and e) Recent data for Bulgaria and Romania are sparse though T. carpathica is quite widespread in the Carpathians (e.g. Fagaras Mountains) and present, for example, on Vitosha near Sofia. The species is found in floodplains, subalpine meadows and by montane (1,900-2,050 m) streams and rivulets, as well as more rarely in dwarf pine and alder stands and in moist forests on wet, nutrient-rich, neutral to alkaline soils, and in shady ravines. Tozzia grows within the following Habitats Directive habitats, both of which are (at least often) riparian: 6430 Hydrophilous tall herb fringe communities of plains and of the montane to alpine levels, and 91E0 Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior. The main threats are forestry clearance, removal of forest undergrowth, stream canalisation and changes to natural hydrology.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/162210/0

Common sundew | Drosera rotundifolia

[id: 62]
[ID-fwe: 919]

Click to enlarge

Common name:

Common sundew

Scientific name:

Drosera rotundifolia

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Loser

Climate change impact:

Increased temperature, eutrophication

Response description:

Native bog species, suffering from several stresses such as eutrophication and changes in wetland hydrology. Climate change is an extra stressor and may worsen hydrological alterations of wetlands.

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Cyclamen-flowered Daffodil | Narcissus cyclamineus

[id: 215]

Common name:

Cyclamen-flowered Daffodil

Scientific name:

Narcissus cyclamineus

Where to find:

Grassland and forest

Climate change impact:

A vulnerable species to climate change on the basis of its narrow bioclimatic range and dependence on moist habitats associated with lowland rivers.

Response description:

N. cyclamineus is found in the northwest of Iberia i.e. Portugal (near Porto and Viseu and in Minho, Douro Litoral, Beira Alta and Beira Litoral provinces) and Spain (4 provinces of Galicia: La Coru?a, Pontevedra, Ourense and Lugo). In Portugal the species is found within an area of 1,430 km2 and there is evidence of some population increase, though usually in low numbers. In Spain, this species is recorded in 34 localities with new populations recently discovered. N. cyclamineus grows in shaded forests, humid grasslands and on the banks of lowland river basins, cited for the following Habitats Directive designated habitats, both of which occur in the riparian zone: 6510 Lowland hay meadows (Alopecurus pratensis and Sanguisorba officinalis), and 91E0 Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior. The main recorded threats are collection and forestry planting.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/161899/0

European Water Clover or Water Shamrock | Marsilea quadrifolia

[id: 203]
[ID-fwe: 1069]

Common name:

European Water Clover or Water Shamrock

Scientific name:

Marsilea quadrifolia

Where to find:

Rice fields and ditches

Climate change impact:

The habitat is widespread and the inclusion of M. quadrifolia in the Habitats Directive reflects its restricted distribution and perceived decline in the EU (especially those states that were members at the time the directive was originally drafted). The plant occurs both in shallow water and in the drawdown zone ? hence it is vulnerable to any change in climate that might affect the depth and seasonality of this habitat. However, M. quadrifolia rarely occurs associated with rivers (being mainly a still-water plant) and is thus of only marginal relevance to REFRESH.

Response description:

M. quadrifolia occurs throughout much of southern Europe: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, FYR Macedonia, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Switzerland and Ukraine. It also occurs east to China (where it is widespread) and Japan, including Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Lao PDR, Malaysia and Sri Lanka, and is present in United States. Within Europe it occurs along many of the major river valleys (e.g. Loire, Po and parts of the Danube catchment), as well as in complexes of wetlands throughout central and southern Europe. It grows in still waters such as ponds, rice fields and ditches and IUCN reports no major threats.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/161864/0

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Fen Orchid | Liparis loeselii

[id: 199]

Common name:

Fen Orchid

Scientific name:

Liparis loeselii

Where to find:

Fens and dune slacks

Climate change impact:

With quite a wide bioclimatic range and seldom specifically associated with rivers, it has thus probably relatively low vulnerability to climate change and is outwith the scope of REFRESH.

Response description:

This plant is not in the IUCN red list and occurs within cooler temperate parts of western Europe, the eastern United States and adjacent Canada, as well as east Asia. L. loeselii grows in lowland fens, bogs and dune-slacks. In some areas, it is restricted to species-rich fens on infertile soils and to old peat cuttings, whilst elsewhere it grows in young dune-slacks. L. loeselii has declined greatly, especially before 1930, due to habitat destruction and scrub encroachment. Dune-slack sites are vulnerable to coastal management and under-grazing that stabilise dunes and reduce the number of young slacks available for colonisation

Grande Soldanelle (France) | Soldanella villosa

[id: 229]

Common name:

Grande Soldanelle (France)

Scientific name:

Soldanella villosa

Where to find:

Margins in heathland

Climate change impact:

Although the only listed Habitats Directive habitat is not primarily riparian, it is clear that this plant occurs mainly by rivers within heathland complexes. As such it is both liable to altered soil water-regime and flooding from the river as a result of climate change. The overall range is also very restricted, making this plant vulnerable to bioclimatic change and fragmentation of the populations.

Response description:

S. villosa is a European endemic that occurs in northern Spain (area of occupancy 88 km2) and western France (extent of occurrence 615 km2 and the area of occupancy <20 km2). It may be safely assumed that the total occupancy area is <500 km2. In Spain, S. villosa has been recorded in 18 localities and the populations are decreasing (but locally abundant), although it is suspected that the overall population is andle;2,500 mature individuals. In France, it is found in 8 localities (6 communes) with >1,000 individuals in total. The general population trend is unknown, but the total number of individuals is <10,000 and there are <1,000 mature individuals in each subpopulation. S. villosa occurs near rivers, on humid slopes and river banks and at springs in hills and mountains, growing within the Habitats Directive type 4020 Temperate Atlantic wet heaths with Erica ciliaris and E. tetralix. In Spain, inadequate forest management, excessive livestock pressure and trampling, and activities that alter the hydrological dynamics, pose the main threats, whilst in France the main threat is forest management.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/162379/0

Himalayan balsam | Impatiens glandulifera

[id: 63]
[ID-fwe: 539]

Click to enlarge

Common name:

Himalayan balsam

Scientific name:

Impatiens glandulifera

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Winner

Climate change impact:

Increased temperature, eutrophication

Response description:

Exotic species, invasive behavior promoted by increasing temperature and more frequent floods.

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Killarney Fern | Trichomanes speciosum

[id: 232]

Common name:

Killarney Fern

Scientific name:

Trichomanes speciosum

Where to find:

Riparian forests

Climate change impact:

Given that the habitat is similar to Culcita, a similar vulnerability to climate change may be inferred, with changes already observed in some parts of its range.

Response description:

A European endemic fern, restricted to western Europe and Macaronesia, Trichomanes is found at >500 localities in its range and is stable in some countries. As detailed by IUCN, the range includes France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy, Portugal, Spain (including Canaries), Germany, Czech Republic, Poland, Ireland and the UK. Though not threatened at the European level, this fern has a specialised ecology and habitat preferences and is very slow growing. This fern occurs in shady and humid places near water, mainly near waterfalls. It can be found in the following Habitats Directive listed habitats: 8220 Siliceous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation, 8310 Caves not open to the public, 9120 Atlantic acidophilous beech forests with Ilex and sometimes also Taxus in the shrub layer, 9180 Tilio-Acerion forests of slopes, screes and ravines and amongst riparian habitats, 91E0 Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior. IUCN identifies the main threat factors as collection, recreational activities (e.g. climbing), habitat destruction, unfavourable forest management (such as removal of undergrowth), modification of hydrological conditions, droughts/desiccation, and rubbish disposal, and advocates careful monitoring of populations. In Italy, logging and drought, due to surface water abstraction and climatic warming, have been specified as threats, whilst in Portugal, invasion of Acacia melanoxylon poses a threat.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/162169/0

Little Grapefern (USA) | Botrychium simplex

[id: 171]

Common name:

Little Grapefern (USA)

Scientific name:

Botrychium simplex

Climate change impact:

Despite inclusion in Annex II (Habitats Directive), this species is not included in the IUCN red list, being widespread and locally frequent in some parts of its range (outside Europe). In addition, though dependent upon seasonally wet sites, B. simplex is not primarily a riparian species. However, any climate changes in Europe that resulted in changes to the eco-hydrological regime, whether in desiccation of sites or inundation, would make B. simplex more vulnerable in its localised sites.

Response description:

B. simplex is native to Europe with the exception of the British Isles and the Iberian Peninsula, as well as Canada, Greenland, USA (northeast, central northeast, northern Prairie states, Virginia, northwest, Rocky Mountains and California). B. simplex var. simplex is said to be the European form, though many European plants (notably in the Arctic) may be B. tenebrosum. B. simplex is primarily a plant of open habitats, occurring in pastures, meadows, orchards, prairies, wetlands, fens, sand dunes and in lake and stream edge vegetation. Most of these habitats are at least temporarily wet and some (fens) are permanently saturated. Within these habitats, plants may be among sparse vegetation and fully exposed to the sun, or they may grow among tall dense herbaceous vegetation, receiving only very low light.

Marsh Gladiolus | Gladiolus palustris

[id: 189]

Common name:

Marsh Gladiolus

Scientific name:

Gladiolus palustris

Where to find:

Wet meadows

Climate change impact:

The only riparian habitats relevant to REFRESH where G. palustris is noted are wet meadows. The bioclimatic range is quite wide and there is evidence that this species can tolerate some perturbation to the water regime.

Response description:

G. palustris is confined to Europe and is subject to several threats both to its habitat and to the species directly e.g. modified cultivation practices, management of water systems and drainage, pollution, and collection. The data for this species are deficient (according to IUCN). G. palustris is found north of the Alps from eastern France and the Alsace, Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland eastwards with fragmented patches in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. South of the Alps, it extends from the Appenines in Italy to eastern Austria and Hungary whence it extends to western Bulgaria and Albania in the Balkans. Recorded for Albania, Austria, Belarus (1 locality but now extinct), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria (5 recent locations), Croatia, Czech Republic (323 individuals), France (mainland - 33 localities with >25,000 individuals), Germany (89 localities, stable trend), Greece (mainland), Hungary (52,000-55,000 individuals, increasing), Italy (mainland ? 90 localities, stable), Liechtenstein, Poland (up to 20 individuals, declining), Romania, Serbia (vulnerable), Slovakia (3 localities), Slovenia (7 sites, declining), Switzerland (light to moderate decline since 1990), and Ukraine (1 locality where probably extinct). G. palustris is found in coniferous, mainly pine forests (Erico-Pinion) and wooded wet meadows, preferring periodically wet meadows (though tolerant to drying out) including those with a steppic character and where oak groves have much Molinia. If the habitat is not periodically wet the populations decrease due to competition. It grows on calcareous, moderately humic and nutrient-poorer soils. This plant grows in the following Habitats Directive designated habitats: 62A0 Eastern sub-Mediterranean dry grasslands (Scorzoneratalia villosae), 6260 Pannonic sand steppes, 6410 Molinia meadows on calcareous, peaty or clayey-silt-laden soils (Molinion caeruleae), 6440 Alluvial meadows of river valleys of the Cnidion dubii, and 91M0 Pannonian-Balkanic turkey oak-sessile oak forests. Only those underlined are specifically riparian. G. palustris is subject to numerous threats: a) modified cultivation practices (e.g. mowing, grazing, abandonment of pastoral systems), b) forest planting, c) management of water systems and drainage or canalisation, d) conversion of its meadow habitat into arable land, e) collection, f) pollution from pesticides and fertilisers as well as eutrophication, and more locally g) aquaculture, roads and railway lines.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/162188/0

Panicaut Nain Vivipare (France) | Eryngium viviparum

[id: 158]
[ID-fwe: 943]

Common name:

Panicaut Nain Vivipare (France)

Scientific name:

Eryngium viviparum

Where to find:

Pools (winter wet)

Climate change impact:

Threatened mainly by habitat change and human development on habitats that are almost entirely not riparian (thus outwith the scope of REFRESH). However it has a very precise ecological range and is probably vulnerable to climate change impacts on Atlantic heaths.

Response description:

E. viviparum is native to France (Morbihan - 1 km2), Spain (Galicia and Castilla y Leon) and Portugal (1 site). Thus, the estimated total area of occupancy may be 80 km2. The species has undergone a very strong decline over an already small area, with few localities remaining. In Bretagne the decline has been spectacular from being abundant ca 1960 to some 50 sites (1975-1980) to a single confirmed site with 200-1,500 individuals. NW Spain has 20 subpopulations (8 more having disappeared recently) with >15,000 individuals, mainly in Galicia, and with 57% of the population considered threatened and ca 2% is on the verge of extinction. The Portuguese locus classicus is considered extinct, but a new small population was discovered in the Serra da Nogueira which also faces a high risk of extinction. The natural habitat of E. viviparum comprises acid depressions in Atlantic heaths, where it is a pioneer species, intolerant of competition. These sites are generally exploited as winter-inundated pastures, where poaching by cattle enables the plant to survive. In Brittany, the soil is derived from granite (pH ca 6.5) and such soils tend to retreat in times of drought. The species colonises temporarily submerged soils that dry during the summer. E. viviparum grows in 3 Habitats Directive types: 3110 Oligotrophic waters containing very few minerals of sandy plains, 3130 Oligotrophic to mesotrophic standing waters with vegetation of the Littorelletea uniflorae and/or of the Isoeto-Nanojuncetea, and 6410 Molinia meadows on calcareous, peaty or clayey-silt-laden soils. Pools supporting this species tend to disappear due to natural succession of the habitat (invasion by Molinia) and due to a variety of anthropogenic modification and degradation of the habitat e.g. drainage and cultivation of maize, conifer plantation, urbanisation, disposal of organic wastes and decline in grazing. Sand extraction is also problematic in some part of its range.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/161835/0

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Rough cocklebur | Xanthium strumarium

[id: 66]
[ID-fwe: 1263]

Click to enlarge

Common name:

Rough cocklebur

Scientific name:

Xanthium strumarium

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Winner

Climate change impact:

Increased temperature, eutrophication

Response description:

Increased temperatures, increased variability in lake water levels as a consequence of Climate Change and restoration of lake pioneer habitats lead to an extension of the species.

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Spreading cinquefoil | Potentilla supina

[id: 65]
[ID-fwe: 1320]

Common name:

Spreading cinquefoil

Scientific name:

Potentilla supina

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Winner

Climate change impact:

Increased temperature, eutrophication

Response description:

Increased temperatures, increased variability in lake water levels as a consequence of Climate Change and restoration of lake pioneer habitats lead to an extension of the species.

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Waterwheel Plant | Aldrovanda vesiculosa

[id: 167]
[ID-fwe: 6]

Common name:

Waterwheel Plant

Scientific name:

Aldrovanda vesiculosa

Climate change impact:

There is little evidence that the almost universal decline in A. vesiculosa is related to climate and the extremely widespread historical range suggests wide tolerance. Thus though certainly declining in its riparian habitats, this trend results from factors other than climate.

Response description:

The IUCN Red List provides a detailed account of the distributional history of this plant in Europe, Asia and Africa (which see). Historically, A. vesiculosa occurred throughout western, central, southern, northern and eastern Europe, from coastal areas in western and southern France, throughout northern and central Italy, Austria and Germany to Poland, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Lichtenstein, Lithuania, Montenegro, Ukraine, Romania, Russia (Caucasus, Volga, Ussuri, Amur, Lipetsk and St Petersburg areas), Serbia, Slovakia and Turkey. It was scattered throughout Asia: Bangladesh, India, Manchuria, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Korea and Japan, south to East Timor and several coastal areas around Australia. In Africa, populations have been recorded in Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa, South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda and Zambia. Presently, this species is scarce in Europe: Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia (St Petersburg and Lipetsk areas), Serbia and Ukraine, as well as persisting in N and SE Australia, Botswana and South Africa. Habitats: Amongst the habitats cited for Europe in the comprehensive breakdown of the locations (past and present) of A. vesiculosa in the IUCN Red Lists are: lakes (sometimes on peaty floodplains and as oxbows), moats, fishponds, canals and drainage channels, creeks, river channels/margins, river deltas, amongst emergent reeds and swamps. There have been catastrophic declines in many countries of Europe with numerous extinctions. However, Lake Ladoga east of St Petersburg represents the largest and most stable extant site in the world (population estimated to be in the millions, with A. vesiculosa the dominant species). The IUCN habitat description refers to a wide variety, from small fens and billabongs to lakes, lagoons and river deltas. While infrequently observed in mesotrophic lakes and eutrophic habitats (e.g. fishponds and rice paddies), it is native to nutrient impoverished oligo-mesotrophic and dystrophic (humic) systems. The stenotopic nature and reliance upon carnivory limits the species distribution to specific microhabitats dominated by loose and species-poor plant communities. These are generally shallow backwaters or the littoral zone of larger lakes, where competition with other aquatic species forming dense stands is reduced or absent and are typically areas experiencing little variation in water level throughout the growing season. This species is extremely intolerant of habitat degradation, and even slight changes to water chemistry can result in local extinction. Climate: In terms of its relationship with climate, A. vesiculosa overwinters as turions that sink to the bottom of the water where temperatures are stable/warmer during winter, though losses occur as turions are washed ashore, grazed or killed by frost. In latitudes with very mild winters, it may grow year-round with no overwintering period. While plants from warmer climates are known to bloom more profusely/regularly, these flowers open only briefly and often fail to develop fruit. The primary dispersive agent in it is likely to be vegetative via stem fragments or turions, transported externally by birds between suitable habitats. Threats: According to a review (2011) of conservation threats to carnivorous plants, this species is threatened primarily by residential and commercial development, agriculture and aquaculture, natural systems modification and pollution. The Commission of the European Union (2009) also lists acidification, canalisation, desilting, drainage, eutrophication, forestry clearance, gravel extraction, mining, pollution, hydrological modification and limited dispersal. It is believed that some illegal trade also occurs in A. vesiculosa. Habitat degradation is common throughout the speciesà entire range, and very few sites, including those within conservation reserves, remain pristine.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/162346/0

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Yellow-wort | Blackstonia perfoliata

[id: 61]
[ID-fwe: 1319]

Click to enlarge

Common name:

Yellow-wort

Scientific name:

Blackstonia perfoliata

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Winner

Climate change impact:

Increased temperature, eutrophication

Response description:

Increased temperatures, increased variability in lake water levels as a consequence of Climate Change and restoration of lake pioneer habitats lead to an extension of the species.

Search for more information about this species or other macrophytes on freshwaterecology.info:

Autecological characteristics, ecological preferences, biological traits, distribution patterns

http://www.freshwaterecology.info/TaxaDB_mphSearch.php

Macroinvertebrates

Asian clam | Corbicula fluminea

[id: 70]
[ID-fwe: 11176]

Common name:

Asian clam

Scientific name:

Corbicula fluminea

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Winner

Climate change impact:

Higher winter temperatures, Eutrophication

More about the species:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corbicula_fluminea

Search for more information about this species or other macroinvertebrates on freshwaterecology.info:

Autecological characteristics, ecological preferences, biological traits, distribution patterns

http://www.freshwaterecology.info/TaxaDB_mzbSearch.php

European physa | Physella acuta

[id: 71]
[ID-fwe: 6396]

Common name:

European physa

Scientific name:

Physella acuta

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Winner

Climate change impact:

Increased water temperature, reduced flow velocity

Search for more information about this species or other macroinvertebrates on freshwaterecology.info:

Autecological characteristics, ecological preferences, biological traits, distribution patterns

http://www.freshwaterecology.info/TaxaDB_mzbSearch.php

Greater European peaclam | Pisidium amnicum

[id: 102]
[ID-fwe: 6409]

Common name:

Greater European peaclam

Scientific name:

Pisidium amnicum

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Loser

Climate change impact:

Increased water temperature, low summer flow

Response description:

The sphaeriid Pisidium amnicum is a common freshwater clam in Europe, occurring mainly in the northern and central European countries. High temperatures, low summer flow and competition with invasive species (such as Corbicula fluminea) could result in a significant reduction of its population, particularly in warmer regions where events of water scarcity and high temperatures are expected to become more frequent.

More about the species:

http://www.animalbase.uni-goettingen.de/zooweb/servlet/AnimalBase/home/species?id=1659

Reference:

Domisch S., Jaehnig S.C. and Haase P. (2011) Climate-change winners and losers: stream macroinvertebrates of a submontane region in Central Europe. Freshwater Biology 56, 2009-2020.
Sousa, R., M. Ilarri, A. T. Souza, C. Antunes, and L. Guilhermino, 20

Search for more information about this species or other macroinvertebrates on freshwaterecology.info:

Autecological characteristics, ecological preferences, biological traits, distribution patterns

http://www.freshwaterecology.info/TaxaDB_mzbSearch.php

Zebra Mussel | Dreissena polymorpha

[id: 69]
[ID-fwe: 4999]

Click to enlarge

Common name:

Zebra Mussel

Scientific name:

Dreissena polymorpha

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Winner

Search for more information about this species or other macroinvertebrates on freshwaterecology.info:

Autecological characteristics, ecological preferences, biological traits, distribution patterns

http://www.freshwaterecology.info/TaxaDB_mzbSearch.php

Mammals

Pond Bat | Myotis dasycneme

[id: 212]

Common name:

Pond Bat

Scientific name:

Myotis dasycneme

Where to find:

Also in Rivers and Lakes

Climate change impact:

Possibly at risk from the impact of climate change on the extent of water bodies and their marginal vehetation, although other factors appear more important - destruction of roosts etc

Response description:

M. dasycneme occurs from north-west Europe (NW France and southern Scandinavia) south to Serbia and Montenegro, Ukraine and north Kazakhstan, east to the River Yenisei in central Russia, with a few records from China (recorded from sea level to 1500 m). It feeds mainly over open calm water, particularly canals, rivers and lakes, on small emerging and emergent insects, often taken from the water surface. It prefers water lined by open rough vegetation without trees. Most of the known summer maternity roosts are in buildings, in groups of 40-600. Some tree and bat box roosts are recorded. It frequently hibernates in underground habitats ranging from natural caves to cellars and bunkers. It is a partial migrant, with winter and summer roosts often separated by more than 100 km, and it may need good habitat links between summer and winter roosts. Threatened by habitat change, including renovation and maintenance of buildings with roosts involving the use of chemicals for remedial timber treatment that are toxic to mammals. Few nursery roost sites are known and many of these have been lost, although numbers in hibernation sites have shown a slower decline in The Netherlands. Water pollution may also be a threat, the species already has a relatively restricted foraging habitat of broad, open flat water of canals, rivers and lakes with relatively open banks, with possibly some further seasonal (summer) restriction within utilised habitat.

Tundra Vole | Microtus oeconomus

[id: 161]

Click to enlarge

Common name:

Tundra Vole

Scientific name:

Microtus oeconomus

Where to find:

Margins

Climate change impact:

Occurs over a wide bioclimatic range and is therefore unlikely to be immediately vulnerable to climate change. However the subspecies listed in the HD annex (from the edges of the vole's distribution and with a much narrower range) could be affected delet

Response description:

Microtus oeconomus is a Holarctic species, with a wide range extending from north-west Europe in the west to Alaska in the East. Specifically in Europe, its main range extends from eastern Germany and northern Fennoscandia through Poland, Belarus, and northern and central European Russia. Isolated relict populations are found in the Netherlands (ssp arenicola), southern Norway and northern Sweden, the Finnish coast, and Austria/Slovakia/Hungary (ssp mehelyi). It typically inhabits damp, densely-vegetated areas along the edges of lakes, streams and marshes. The species may be found in tundra, taiga, forest-steppe, and even semi-desert. Wet meadows, bogs, fens, riverbanks and flooded shores are all important habitats. Feeds on green vegetation.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/13451/0



Climate Change and Freshwater
Online: http://www.climate-and-freshwater.info/climate_change/wetlands/temperate/affected_species/
Date: 2017/07/23
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