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Lakes in temperate ecoregions - affected species

Climate change will have impacts on freshwaters through changes in hydrology e.g. through more frequent floods, but mainly through increased temperatures. Water temperature is a main determinant of water quality (such as oxygen concentration) and an increase will lead to chain of events that may affect community composition. In cold ecoregions, for example, extension of the ice-free period and increased water temperature will lead to enhance primary production and eutrophication, desynchronise life cycles and cause physiological problems for cold-adapted species. Cold-water stenothermic species which inhabit alpine stream environments for example are especially vulnerable to warming and snow loss (Brown et al. 2007). In, warmer regions, such as the Mediterranean, normal interannual variations are expected to be more extreme and this together with elevated temperatures and salinities would result in more frequent harsh conditions to the local biota. In central European regions temperature raise is predicted to lead to the extinction of sensitive species, such as several aquatic insects (Stoneflies) and fishes such as the European bullhead (Cottus gobio) (Logez et al., 2012). The spreading of invasive or alien species is also expected to occur in a more rapid way as habitats will become more suitable for invasion and establishment.

This section presents examples of species that according to current scientific literature may be positivly or negativaly affected by climate change (“winners” or “losers”). For each ecosystem type (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ecoregion (cold, temperate and warm) and different organism groups (phytoplankton/macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fish) are presented.

Plants

European Water Clover or Water Shamrock | Marsilea quadrifolia

[id: 203]
[ID-fwe: 1069]

Common name:

European Water Clover or Water Shamrock

Scientific name:

Marsilea quadrifolia

Where to find:

Rice fields and ditches

Climate change impact:

The habitat is widespread and the inclusion of M. quadrifolia in the Habitats Directive reflects its restricted distribution and perceived decline in the EU (especially those states that were members at the time the directive was originally drafted). The plant occurs both in shallow water and in the drawdown zone ? hence it is vulnerable to any change in climate that might affect the depth and seasonality of this habitat. However, M. quadrifolia rarely occurs associated with rivers (being mainly a still-water plant) and is thus of only marginal relevance to REFRESH.

Response description:

M. quadrifolia occurs throughout much of southern Europe: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, FYR Macedonia, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Switzerland and Ukraine. It also occurs east to China (where it is widespread) and Japan, including Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Lao PDR, Malaysia and Sri Lanka, and is present in United States. Within Europe it occurs along many of the major river valleys (e.g. Loire, Po and parts of the Danube catchment), as well as in complexes of wetlands throughout central and southern Europe. It grows in still waters such as ponds, rice fields and ditches and IUCN reports no major threats.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/161864/0

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Floating Water-plantain | Luronium natans

[id: 200]
[ID-fwe: 225]

Common name:

Floating Water-plantain

Scientific name:

Luronium natans

Climate change impact:

Found over a wide bioclimatic range including the Atlantic, Continental and Mediterranean regions, L. natans is probably quite tolerant of some climatic shift, but where altered climate leads to changes in the water regime of rivers (flow, depth, volume, flooding and seasonality), some damage to its populations is likely.

Response description:

This European endemic (west and central) is widespread but has locally suffered declines and faces a range of threats such as the modification of its aquatic habitats or water pollution. However, as the populations do not appear likely to become extinct imminently, Luronium is classed by IUCN as of Least Concern. Data quality and coverage for distribution/abundance vary over its range. The confirmed range of Luronium includes: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain (mainland), Sweden and the UK. Luronium is very rare in Scandinavia, Ireland, Spain and the Czech Republic as well as much reduced in Poland. The plant is much commoner in Germany, France, the Netherlands and the UK (where it ascends to 450 m altitude). Population levels often fluctuate and Luronium can be found in and along a wide range of water bodies e.g. in Sweden in small bodies that are shallow clear and non-eutrophic (often on sand) whilst in Spain, if occurs at the edges of pools and lakes as well as in stream/river backwaters. In terms of the Habitats Directive, L. natans is noted for 19 designated habitats (those underlined being riverine or riparian): 3110 Oligotrophic waters containing very few minerals of sandy plains, 3120 Oligotrophic waters containing very few minerals generally on sandy soils of the West Mediterranean with Isoetes spp., 3130 Oligotrophic to mesotrophic standing waters with vegetation of the Littorelletea uniflorae and/or of the Isoeto-Nanojuncetea, 3140 Hard oligo-mesotrophic waters with benthic vegetation of Chara spp., 3150 Natural eutrophic lakes with Magnopotamion or Hydrocharition type vegetation, 3160 Natural dystrophic lakes and ponds, 3170 Mediterranean temporary ponds, 3220 Alpine rivers and the herbaceous vegetation along their banks, 3260 Water courses of plain to montane levels with the Ranunculion fluitantis and Callitricho-Batrachion vegetation, 3270 Rivers with muddy banks with Chenopodion rubri p.p. and Bidention p.p. vegetation, 3280 Constantly flowing Mediterranean rivers with Paspalo-Agrostidion species and hanging curtains of Salix and Populus alba, 4010 Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix, 4020 Temperate Atlantic wet heaths with Erica ciliaris and E. tetralix, 4090 Endemic oro-Mediterranean heaths with gorse, 7120 Degraded raised bogs still capable of natural regeneration, 7130 Blanket bogs, 7140 Transition mires and quaking bogs, 91E0 Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior, and 91F0 Riparian mixed forests of Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis and U. minor, Fraxinus excelsior or F. angustifolia, along the great rivers. The main threats to Luronium are habitat destruction/degradation through water and soil pollution (pesticides, fertilisers) and eutrophication. Modification of hydrological regimes is a major threat e.g. canalisation (or other modification of watercourses), water-level management, drainage and management of bank vegetation. Filling of water bodies or sediment removal can affect populations, as can altered agricultural practice, abandonment of pastoral systems and unfavourable forest management. Aquaculture and recreational activities (fishing, nautical sports, walking, horse-riding and non-motorised vehicles) are also reported as having negative impacts.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/162134/0

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Slender Naiad | Najas flexilis

[id: 213]
[ID-fwe: 253]

Common name:

Slender Naiad

Scientific name:

Najas flexilis

Where to find:

Nutrient poor

Climate change impact:

Though a species of limited biogeographical range (mainly in Atlantic and Continental regions) and thus potentially vulnerable to climate change, this plant is almost strictly a species of still waters rather than the rivers that are the focus of REFRESH.

Response description:

This plant is not in the IUCN red list and inhabits shallow bodies of brackish and freshwater such as lakes and bays. (In North America it is found along the Pacific coast, in the north and northeast portions, with disjunct populations in Missouri and Utah). Within Europe, it is native to the north, where its range includes Scotland, Poland and Sweden, but it is rare generally. The two main threats to N. flexilis appear to be eutrophication (because in eutrophic, high pH conditions plants cannot photosynthesise due to a lack of CO2), and acidification (plants appear unable to produce seeds in low pH conditions). N. flexilis is known in Scotland in National Vegetation Classification communities A13, A24a and A23 and in PalmerĂs Standing Water Types 3, 4 and 5. None of these are river habitats. Presence of invasive Elodea species has been considered as threats to N. flexilis, being sometimes out-competed by the invasive waterweeds. In the British Isles, N. flexilis can be found in water <1.0 m deep, but is usually found at depths of andge;1.5 m. These depth limits result from a number of factors, including light and exposure, and hence water clarity, suspended solids, algal growth and the properties of the catchment. N. flexilis appears to grow particularly in silty, organic, flocculent sediment or in fine semi-liquid mud with an organic content of 5-10%.

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Waterwheel Plant | Aldrovanda vesiculosa

[id: 167]
[ID-fwe: 6]

Common name:

Waterwheel Plant

Scientific name:

Aldrovanda vesiculosa

Climate change impact:

There is little evidence that the almost universal decline in A. vesiculosa is related to climate and the extremely widespread historical range suggests wide tolerance. Thus though certainly declining in its riparian habitats, this trend results from factors other than climate.

Response description:

The IUCN Red List provides a detailed account of the distributional history of this plant in Europe, Asia and Africa (which see). Historically, A. vesiculosa occurred throughout western, central, southern, northern and eastern Europe, from coastal areas in western and southern France, throughout northern and central Italy, Austria and Germany to Poland, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Lichtenstein, Lithuania, Montenegro, Ukraine, Romania, Russia (Caucasus, Volga, Ussuri, Amur, Lipetsk and St Petersburg areas), Serbia, Slovakia and Turkey. It was scattered throughout Asia: Bangladesh, India, Manchuria, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Korea and Japan, south to East Timor and several coastal areas around Australia. In Africa, populations have been recorded in Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa, South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda and Zambia. Presently, this species is scarce in Europe: Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia (St Petersburg and Lipetsk areas), Serbia and Ukraine, as well as persisting in N and SE Australia, Botswana and South Africa. Habitats: Amongst the habitats cited for Europe in the comprehensive breakdown of the locations (past and present) of A. vesiculosa in the IUCN Red Lists are: lakes (sometimes on peaty floodplains and as oxbows), moats, fishponds, canals and drainage channels, creeks, river channels/margins, river deltas, amongst emergent reeds and swamps. There have been catastrophic declines in many countries of Europe with numerous extinctions. However, Lake Ladoga east of St Petersburg represents the largest and most stable extant site in the world (population estimated to be in the millions, with A. vesiculosa the dominant species). The IUCN habitat description refers to a wide variety, from small fens and billabongs to lakes, lagoons and river deltas. While infrequently observed in mesotrophic lakes and eutrophic habitats (e.g. fishponds and rice paddies), it is native to nutrient impoverished oligo-mesotrophic and dystrophic (humic) systems. The stenotopic nature and reliance upon carnivory limits the species distribution to specific microhabitats dominated by loose and species-poor plant communities. These are generally shallow backwaters or the littoral zone of larger lakes, where competition with other aquatic species forming dense stands is reduced or absent and are typically areas experiencing little variation in water level throughout the growing season. This species is extremely intolerant of habitat degradation, and even slight changes to water chemistry can result in local extinction. Climate: In terms of its relationship with climate, A. vesiculosa overwinters as turions that sink to the bottom of the water where temperatures are stable/warmer during winter, though losses occur as turions are washed ashore, grazed or killed by frost. In latitudes with very mild winters, it may grow year-round with no overwintering period. While plants from warmer climates are known to bloom more profusely/regularly, these flowers open only briefly and often fail to develop fruit. The primary dispersive agent in it is likely to be vegetative via stem fragments or turions, transported externally by birds between suitable habitats. Threats: According to a review (2011) of conservation threats to carnivorous plants, this species is threatened primarily by residential and commercial development, agriculture and aquaculture, natural systems modification and pollution. The Commission of the European Union (2009) also lists acidification, canalisation, desilting, drainage, eutrophication, forestry clearance, gravel extraction, mining, pollution, hydrological modification and limited dispersal. It is believed that some illegal trade also occurs in A. vesiculosa. Habitat degradation is common throughout the speciesĂ entire range, and very few sites, including those within conservation reserves, remain pristine.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/162346/0

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Macroinvertebrates

Blue-eyed Hawker | Aeshna affinis

[id: 146]
[ID-fwe: 4221]

Common name:

Blue-eyed Hawker

Scientific name:

Aeshna affinis

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Winner

Climate change impact:

Increased temperature, eutrophication

Response description:

Expansion of this southern species to northern regions corresponded with the increase of temperature, even if it is still unclear which factor(s) is (are) the dominating one(s) (e.g. maximum temperature, mean temperature, duration of sunshine).

Reference:

Ott J. (2010). Dragonflies and limatic change - recent trends in Germany and Europe. BioRisk 5: 253-286.

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Lesser Emperor | Anax parthenope

[id: 145]
[ID-fwe: 7430]

Common name:

Lesser Emperor

Scientific name:

Anax parthenope

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Winner

Climate change impact:

Increased temperature, eutrophication

Response description:

Expansion of this southern species to northern regions corresponded with the increase of temperature, even if it is still unclear which factor(s) is (are) the dominating one(s) (e.g. maximum temperature, mean temperature, duration of sunshine).

Reference:

Ott J. (2010). Dragonflies and limatic change - recent trends in Germany and Europe. BioRisk 5: 253-286.

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Northern Emerald | Somatochlora arctica

[id: 150]
[ID-fwe: 7438]

Common name:

Northern Emerald

Scientific name:

Somatochlora arctica

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Loser

Climate change impact:

Increased temperature, eutrophication

Response description:

The Northern Emerald is a relatively dark and small dragonfly which occurs in Northern Europe and at high altitudes in Central Europe. Increased temperatures, increased variability in lake water levels as a consequence of Climate Change and competition with southern species on habitats lead to a decrease of the species.

More about the species:

http://www.dragonflypix.com/speciespages/somatochlora_arctica.html

Reference:

Ott J. (2010). Dragonflies and limatic change - recent trends in Germany and Europe. BioRisk 5: 253-286.

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Scarlet Darter | Crocothemis erythraea

[id: 144]
[ID-fwe: 7443]

Common name:

Scarlet Darter

Scientific name:

Crocothemis erythraea

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Winner

Climate change impact:

Increased temperature, eutrophication

Response description:

Expansion of this southern species to northern regions corresponded with the increase of temperature, even if it is still unclear which factor(s) is (are) the dominating one(s) (e.g. maximum temperature, mean temperature, duration of sunshine).

Reference:

Ott J. (2010). Dragonflies and limatic change - recent trends in Germany and Europe. BioRisk 5: 253-286.

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Small Whiteface | Leucorrhinia dubia

[id: 149]
[ID-fwe: 7451]

Common name:

Small Whiteface

Scientific name:

Leucorrhinia dubia

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Loser

Climate change impact:

Increased temperature, eutrophication

Response description:

Increased temperatures, increased variability in lake water levels as a consequence of Climate Change and competition with southern species on habitats lead to a decrease of the species.

More about the species:

http://www.dragonflypix.com/speciespages/leucorrhinia_dubia.html

Reference:

Ott J. (2010). Dragonflies and limatic change - recent trends in Germany and Europe. BioRisk 5: 253-286.

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Spearhead Bluet | Coenagrion hastulatum

[id: 148]
[ID-fwe: 7407]

Common name:

Spearhead Bluet

Scientific name:

Coenagrion hastulatum

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Loser

Climate change impact:

Increased temperature, eutrophication

Response description:

Increased temperatures, increased variability in lake water levels as a consequence of Climate Change and competition with southern species on habitats lead to a decrease of the species.

More about the species:

http://www.dragonflypix.com/speciespages/coenagrion_hastulatum.html

Reference:

Ott J. (2010). Dragonflies and limatic change - recent trends in Germany and Europe. BioRisk 5: 253-286.

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Western Spectre | Boyeria irene

[id: 147]
[ID-fwe: 7429]

Common name:

Western Spectre

Scientific name:

Boyeria irene

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Winner

Climate change impact:

Increased temperature, eutrophication

Response description:

It's a southern European species which occurs only in Iberia, Southern France and Italy where its preferred habitat consists of slow-flowing rivers and streams with trees growing right on the water's edge. Expansion of this southern species to northern regions corresponded with the increase of temperature, even if it is still unclear which factor(s) is (are) the dominating one(s) (e.g. maximum temperature, mean temperature, duration of sunshine).

More about the species:

http://www.dragonflypix.com/speciespages/boyeria_irene.html

Reference:

Ott J. (2010). Dragonflies and limatic change - recent trends in Germany and Europe. BioRisk 5: 253-286.

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Fish

Arctic char | Salvelinus alpinus

[id: 24]
[ID-fwe: 287]

Common name:

Arctic char

Scientific name:

Salvelinus alpinus

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Loser

Climate change impact:

Increased water temperature
hydrology

Response description:

The Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) is a holarctic salmonid with the most northerly distribution of any freshwater fish. The fish are regarded as one of the most cold- adapted of all salmonids: they continue to feed and grow at temperatures as low as 0.3anddeg;C and preferred temperatures are low (c. 12anddeg;C ), even compared with other salmonids. Arctic char is sensitive to water pollution and prefers cold, well oxygenated waters (temperature range 4-16anddeg;C). Lethal temperatures for juvenile S. alpinus are in around 23anddeg;C. Arctic char is sensitive to water pollution and prefers cold, well oxygenated waters (temperature range 4-16anddeg;C). Non-migratory populations stay in lakes and rivers all year round. Charr may be first affected in shallow lakes owing to the absence of a cold-water hypolimnion refuge and within deep lakes, the effect will be first in eutrophic lakes where oxygen levels in the hypolimnion are low, but later in the warming process also in oligotrophic lakes.

More about the species:

http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Salvelinus-alpinus+alpinus.html

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Common carp | Cyprinus carpio

[id: 56]
[ID-fwe: 241]

Common name:

Common carp

Scientific name:

Cyprinus carpio

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Winner

Climate change impact:

Increased water temperature

Response description:

Warmer temperatures because of the climate change are predicted to favour the establishment of C. carpio. This non-native species is capable of rapid growth and have a high reproductive capacity involving multiple spawning strategies, leading to impacts such as detrimental effects through interspecific competition and the displacement of native fishes. A bio-engineering species, C. carpio is a vigorous benthic feeder whose foraging behaviour results in declines in submerged vegetation directly through uprooting or herbivory and indirectly through bioturbation and excretion. The species also induces the resuspension of sediments that could change water transparency from clear to turbid.

More about the species:

http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Cyprinus-carpio+carpio.html

Reference:

Britton J.R., Cucherousset J., Davies G.D., Godard M.J. and Copp G.H. (2010) Non-native fishes and climate change: predicting species responses to warming temperatures in a temperate region. Freshwater Biology 55, 1130-1141.

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European perch | Perca fluviatilis

[id: 53]
[ID-fwe: 270]

Click to enlarge

Common name:

European perch

Scientific name:

Perca fluviatilis

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Loser

Climate change impact:

Increased UV

Response description:

Perca flavescens eggs are extremely sensitive to UV radiation, and in a lake with low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (which attenuates UV light), exposure to UV radiation was such that egg mortality was total . Climate change scenarios for in some regions (e.g. U.K.) predict that cloud cover will fall and exposure to solar radiation will increase . Experimental evidence implies that this could have negative implications for P. fluviatilis and other littoral spawners.

More about the species:

http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Perca-fluviatilis.html

Reference:

Graham C.T. and Harrod C. (2009) Implications of climate change for the fishes of the British Isles. Journal of fish biology 74, 1143-205.

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Lake trout | Salmo trutta lacustris

[id: 45]
[ID-fwe: 285]

Common name:

Lake trout

Scientific name:

Salmo trutta lacustris

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Loser

Climate change impact:

Increased temperature

Response description:

The salmonids are coldwater species with high oxygen demands, and the expected rise in temperature may extirpate populations, especially at the southern end of their distribution range where small populations face the greatest risk. Lake trout occur in lakes below the thermocline in southern deep lakes and a variety of cold lake habitats in the north. With an increase in temperature trout will restricted to smaller volumes of lakes and will need to enter these regions earlier in the year. Oxygen content in the deep zones will be affected by prolonged summer stratification, decreasing the habitat quality for lake trouts.

More about the species:

http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Salmo-trutta+lacustris.html

Reference:

Jonsson B. and Jonsson N. (2009) A review of the likely effects of climate change on anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout Salmo trutta, with particular reference to water temperature and flow. Journal of fish biology 75, 2381-447.

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Northern pike | Esox lucius

[id: 55]
[ID-fwe: 243]

Common name:

Northern pike

Scientific name:

Esox lucius

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Loser

Climate change impact:

Increased water temperature

Response description:

Direct negative impacts of climate change on northern pike are unlikely because of this piscivore?s tolerance of relatively high temperatures and infrequent utilisation of deepwater areas where low oxygen levels are likely to develop, but indirect effects may occur through impacts on prey populations. The northern pike is often the top aquatic predator and frequently preys on salmonid-dominated fish communities. Climate change predicts that salmonid distributions will shift northwards and/or show decreases in local productivity. Although northern pike can changes its diet to non-salmonid introduced species, such as cyprinid and percid, changes in their relative abundances are likely to have significant consequences for northern pike foraging conditions, and thereby to an overall decline in their populations.

More about the species:

http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Esox-lucius.html

Reference:

Winfield I.J., James J. Ben and Fletcher J.M. (2008) Northern pike (Esox lucius) in a warming lake: changes in population size and individual condition in relation to prey abundance. Hydrobiologia 601, 29-40.

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Roach | Rutilus rutilus

[id: 54]
[ID-fwe: 281]

Common name:

Roach

Scientific name:

Rutilus rutilus

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Winner

Climate change impact:

Increased water temperature

Response description:

Rutilus rutilus (L.) is a common eurythermal cyprinid, characteristic of productive lakes, ponds, canals and middle and lower reaches of rivers across much of Northern Europe and Asia. The fish can survive in temperatures from 4 to >30anddeg;C; growth, however, is restricted to water temperatures >12anddeg;C . Warmer water temperatures throughout the year, with an earlier spring and extended summer and autumn, will increase the scope for recruitment. Rutilus rutilus is likely to spawn earlier in the year , and YOY fish will forage with greater efficiency over an extended growing season. This will reduce the risk of predation and overwinter mortality . Adult R. rutilus may respond to increased temperatures by increasing growth, with associated increases in fecundity in female fish. Rutilus rutilus can withstand low dissolved oxygen concentrations for short periods, even if water temperatures reach c. 30anddeg;C . Although clearly at risk if water levels fall significantly or if small rivers, shallow lakes and ponds dry out compared with many other fishes, R. rutilus should be relatively resistant to drought conditions.

More about the species:

http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Rutilus-rutilus.html

Reference:

Graham C.T. and Harrod C. (2009) Implications of climate change for the fishes of the British Isles. Journal of fish biology 74, 1143-205.

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Spanish toothcarp | Aphanius iberus

[id: 50]
[ID-fwe: 301]

Common name:

Spanish toothcarp

Scientific name:

Aphanius iberus

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Loser

Climate change impact:

Competition by exotic species, increased water temperaure

Response description:

A. iberus is threatened due to their limited and isolated distribution. During the last three decades there has been a progressive loss and alteration of its habitat especially as a result of an intensive agriculture and tourism development. Current threats to its habitats and its populations include the destruction of habitats, water pollution and the introduction of exotic species, mainly Gambusia holbrooki which appear to have displaced A. iberus from its habitat as they are competitors for habitat and food. Inland populations are restricted to small creeks and are threatened by the depletion of water levels in local aquifers; its survival depends on strict control over the use of groundwater resources.

More about the species:

http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Aphanius-iberus.html.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_toothcarp

Reference:

Oliva-Paterna, F. J., Torralva, M., and Fernandez-Delgado, C. (2006). Threatened Fishes of the World: Aphanius iberus (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1846) (Cyprinodontidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes, 75(3), 307-309. doi:10.1007/s10641-006-0016-2

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Vendace/ European cisco | Coregonus albula

[id: 40]
[ID-fwe: 349]

Common name:

Vendace/ European cisco

Scientific name:

Coregonus albula

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Loser

Climate change impact:

Increased temperature

Response description:

The vendace is a coregonid fish species, which prefers cool and well-oxygenated water and hence its natural range is found in northern Europe. In the United Kingdom, the species is protected under the Wildlife and Countryside Act of 1981 and is a priority species under the U.K. Biodiversity Action Plan. The vendace is not just under threat in the United Kingdom and populations across Europe have shown recent declines. The predicted increase in water temperature of >2anddeg;C will cause thermal stress that could be leading to long periods with no suitable vendace habitat. Given that U.K. populations of this northerly species are already at the extreme southern edge of the geographical range, it is not surprising that a mean increase in water temperature of 2anddeg;C could see this species become extinct.

More about the species:

http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Coregonus-albula.html

Reference:

ELLIOTT J.A. and BELL V.A. (2011) Predicting the potential long-term influence of climate change on vendace (Coregonus albula) habitat in Bassenthwaite Lake, U.K. Freshwater Biology 56, 395-405.

Search for more information about this species or other fish on freshwaterecology.info:

Autecological characteristics, ecological preferences, biological traits, distribution patterns

http://www.freshwaterecology.info/TaxaDB_fishSearch.php

Zander | Sander lucioperca

[id: 47]
[ID-fwe: 290]

Common name:

Zander

Scientific name:

Sander lucioperca

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Winner

Climate change impact:

Increased temperature

Response description:

The zander (Sander lucioperca) is a eurythermal species distributed widely in Europe whose growth and recruitment success is correlated with temperature. The present northern distribution coincides with the July 15anddeg;C isotherm and is likely to shift northward with climate change. Successive year-class strengths and growth rates in northern environments are also likely to increase as temperatures increase. Increases in both abundance and size are very likely to have consequences for the competitiveness of resident coldwater-guild fishes if concomitant increases in lake productivity fail to yield sufficient ration to meet the needs of expanding populations of zander and other percids.

More about the species:

http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Sander-lucioperca.html

Reference:

Reist J.D., Wrona F.J., Prowse T.D., Power M., Dempson J.B., Beamish R.J., et al. (2006) General Effects of Climate Change on Arctic Fishes and Fish Populations. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 35, 370-380.

Search for more information about this species or other fish on freshwaterecology.info:

Autecological characteristics, ecological preferences, biological traits, distribution patterns

http://www.freshwaterecology.info/TaxaDB_fishSearch.php

Mammals

Eurasian Otter | Lutra lutra

[id: 201]

Common name:

Eurasian Otter

Scientific name:

Lutra lutra

Climate change impact:

Eurasian otters are distributed from the Boreal to tropical zones, though tending to occur at higher elevations in the latter. Hence, climate change is unlikely per se to create conditions that are inimical to otters. However, where climate change alters

Response description:

The Eurasian otter has one of the widest distributions of all Palaearctic mammals, its range covering parts of Europe, Asia and Africa. Occurring in most European countries from the Boreal to the Mediterranean, the otter lives in a wide variety of aquatic habitats, including highland and lowland lakes, rivers, streams, marshes, swamp forests and coastal areas independent of their size, origin or latitude. In Europe they are found in the brackish waters from the sea level up to 1,000 m in the Alps. In most parts of its range, its occurrence is correlated with bank side vegetation showing importance of vegetation to otters. Otters in different regions may depend upon differing features of the habitat, but to breed, they need holes in the river bank, cavities among tree roots, piles of rock, wood or debris. Most otter activity is concentrated within a narrow strip on either side of the interface between water and land. Otter distribution in coastal areas especially the location of holts, is strongly correlated with the presence of freshwater. Fish is the major prey of Eurasian otters sometimes exceeding more than 80% of their diet, although in some parts of their range, crabs and aquatic invertebrates are the dominant food item. The aquatic habitats of otters are extremely vulnerable to man-made changes. Canalisation of rivers, removal of bank side vegetation, dam construction, draining of wetlands, aquaculture activities and associated man-made impacts on aquatic systems are all unfavourable to otter populations. Pollution is a major threat to otters in western and central Europe, especially from organochlorines, PCBs and mercury, with coastal populations particularly vulnerable to oil spills. Acidification of rivers and lakes results in the decline of fish biomass and reduces the food resources of the otters. The same effects are known to result from organic pollution by nitrate fertilisers, untreated sewage, or farm slurry. Numerous other threats apply in areas of high human population.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/12419/0



Climate Change and Freshwater
Online: http://www.climate-and-freshwater.info/climate_change/lakes/temperate/affected_species/
Date: 2017/05/27
© 2017 University of Duisburg-Essen | Faculty of Biology, Aquatic Ecology, All rights reserved.