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Wetlands in warm ecoregions - affected species

Climate change will have impacts on freshwaters through changes in hydrology e.g. through more frequent floods, but mainly through increased temperatures. Water temperature is a main determinant of water quality (such as oxygen concentration) and an increase will lead to chain of events that may affect community composition. In cold ecoregions, for example, extension of the ice-free period and increased water temperature will lead to enhance primary production and eutrophication, desynchronise life cycles and cause physiological problems for cold-adapted species. Cold-water stenothermic species which inhabit alpine stream environments for example are especially vulnerable to warming and snow loss (Brown et al. 2007). In, warmer regions, such as the Mediterranean, normal interannual variations are expected to be more extreme and this together with elevated temperatures and salinities would result in more frequent harsh conditions to the local biota. In central European regions temperature raise is predicted to lead to the extinction of sensitive species, such as several aquatic insects (Stoneflies) and fishes such as the European bullhead (Cottus gobio) (Logez et al., 2012). The spreading of invasive or alien species is also expected to occur in a more rapid way as habitats will become more suitable for invasion and establishment.

This section presents examples of species that according to current scientific literature may be positivly or negativaly affected by climate change (“winners” or “losers”). For each ecosystem type (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ecoregion (cold, temperate and warm) and different organism groups (phytoplankton/macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fish) are presented.

Plants

Aconit de Corse (France) | Aconitum corsicum

[id: 151]

Common name:

Aconit de Corse (France)

Scientific name:

Aconitum corsicum

Where to find:

Margins in uplands

Climate change impact:

The fact that this is a narrow endemic with a highly restricted range suggests that it will be vulnerable to climate change in the Mediterranean region. However the plant is fairly catholic in its habitats and, though associated with rivers in some cases, there is no immediate reason to infer that it will be especially vulnerable to altered eco-hydrology of the riparian zone under climate change.

Response description:

A. corsicum is endemic to southern Corsica, growing in 58 localities in four communities, with an occupancy area of just 4.65 km2, but a population size of >100,000 individuals. The taxon appears to be stable in all localities or increasing, maybe due to changes in agricultural practices. A. corsicum grows in montane and subalpine habitats, banks of rivers and pools, meadows, forest clearings and forest edges. The habitat of the species is stable. The main threats to the species are an improved access to its sites, motorised vehicles, roads and motorways. Animal breeding is said to affect the species as well as fires.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/161861/0

Cineraria (Spain) | Senecio elodes

[id: 165]

Common name:

Cineraria (Spain)

Scientific name:

Senecio elodes

Where to find:

Margins of gullies

Climate change impact:

Extremely vulnerable to climate change due to a highly restricted range and dependence on temporary summer streams, whose flow is likely to be altered by altered climate.

Response description:

S. elodes is endemic to Spain (2 locations on lower slopes of the Sierra Nevada) where its occupancy area is only 15 km2 within an overall range of 400 km2 (Commission of the European Communities 2009). The total population has varied between 1,200-3000 individuals in the last decade, with clear retreat in its southernmost range but new nuclei have been located and individual numbers have increased. The plant has marked habitat specificity occurring in scattered groups mainly following the courses of gullies and ditches in upland grasslands, above 2,000 m in deep siliceous soils formed close to oligotrophic temporary summer streams. Various threats may prevent it from distributing further. The habitat is very fragile and it competes in this habitat with Carex species, as well as being damaged by predation of the flowering stems by livestock, which also alter soil conditions leading to competition with nitrophilous species. Proximity of roads and rural communication also poses a continuing risk.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/162308/0

European Chain Fern | Woodwardia radicans

[id: 234]

Common name:

European Chain Fern

Scientific name:

Woodwardia radicans

Where to find:

Riparian forests

Climate change impact:

Possibly relevant through occurrence in riverine ravines (Impacts comparable to Culcita macrocarpa).

Response description:

Found in Macaronesia (Canary Islands, Madeira and Azores), the Cantabrian-Atlantic coast of the Iberian peninsula (Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria and Basque country), southern Italian peninsula, Sicily, Corsica and Crete. Populations in the Serra de Sintra in Portugal are not natural, outside Europe it also exists in northern Algeria. The preferred habitats are moist and shady ravines and forests, often with vertical walls, growing within the understory and in deep rock-crevices.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/

European Water Clover or Water Shamrock | Marsilea quadrifolia

[id: 203]
[ID-fwe: 1069]

Common name:

European Water Clover or Water Shamrock

Scientific name:

Marsilea quadrifolia

Where to find:

Rice fields and ditches

Climate change impact:

The habitat is widespread and the inclusion of M. quadrifolia in the Habitats Directive reflects its restricted distribution and perceived decline in the EU (especially those states that were members at the time the directive was originally drafted). The plant occurs both in shallow water and in the drawdown zone ? hence it is vulnerable to any change in climate that might affect the depth and seasonality of this habitat. However, M. quadrifolia rarely occurs associated with rivers (being mainly a still-water plant) and is thus of only marginal relevance to REFRESH.

Response description:

M. quadrifolia occurs throughout much of southern Europe: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, FYR Macedonia, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Switzerland and Ukraine. It also occurs east to China (where it is widespread) and Japan, including Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Lao PDR, Malaysia and Sri Lanka, and is present in United States. Within Europe it occurs along many of the major river valleys (e.g. Loire, Po and parts of the Danube catchment), as well as in complexes of wetlands throughout central and southern Europe. It grows in still waters such as ponds, rice fields and ditches and IUCN reports no major threats.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/161864/0

Search for more information about this species or other macrophytes on freshwaterecology.info:

Autecological characteristics, ecological preferences, biological traits, distribution patterns

http://www.freshwaterecology.info/TaxaDB_mphSearch.php

Jonc Faux (France) | Juncus valvatus

[id: 195]

Common name:

Jonc Faux (France)

Scientific name:

Juncus valvatus

Where to find:

Wet meadows

Climate change impact:

Probably not within scope of REFRESH as the riparian habitats are mainly within the North African part of its range.

Response description:

J. valvatus is endemic to Portugal, Tunisia and Algeria, with J. valvatus var. echinuloides limited to central and south Portugal (in North Africa var. caricinus). In Portugal, the estimated geographic range for this species is 5402 km2, though its probable total area of occupancy is <500 km2. J. valvatus is found in moist meadows, flooded depressions, banks of freshwaters of limestone and siliceous mountains (up to altitude of ca 2000 m in N. Africa). In Portugal, cultivation, forest planting, urbanisation, discharges and drainage are the main threats to this species.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/161963/0

Kalopiss' Dactylorhiza | Dactylorhiza kalopissii

[id: 181]

Common name:

Kalopiss' Dactylorhiza

Scientific name:

Dactylorhiza kalopissii

Where to find:

Wet montane meadows

Climate change impact:

Though probably vulnerable to climatic change due to its very restricted bioclimatic range, evidence that this marsh orchid is associated with watercourses is sparse.

Response description:

D. kalopissii is endemic to the northern Greek mountains and quite local, though somewhat abundant where it occurs. The population is decreasing due to drainage, tourist development, reservoir construction and intensive grazing as well as the extensive hybridisation with other taxa of the genus. The area of occupancy is ca 15 km2 and the species occurs only at three locations, making it Vulnerable according to IUCN. This species is found from 1,100-1,600 m altitude, with the area of occupancy is 15 km2 and the extent of occurrence is 7,614 km2. Its habitat has undergone significant declines recently through soil drainage, tourist development, reservoir construction and intensive grazing. Collection of this orchid is also a threat.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/162053/0

Killarney Fern | Trichomanes speciosum

[id: 232]

Common name:

Killarney Fern

Scientific name:

Trichomanes speciosum

Where to find:

Riparian forests

Climate change impact:

Given that the habitat is similar to Culcita, a similar vulnerability to climate change may be inferred, with changes already observed in some parts of its range.

Response description:

A European endemic fern, restricted to western Europe and Macaronesia, Trichomanes is found at >500 localities in its range and is stable in some countries. As detailed by IUCN, the range includes France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy, Portugal, Spain (including Canaries), Germany, Czech Republic, Poland, Ireland and the UK. Though not threatened at the European level, this fern has a specialised ecology and habitat preferences and is very slow growing. This fern occurs in shady and humid places near water, mainly near waterfalls. It can be found in the following Habitats Directive listed habitats: 8220 Siliceous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation, 8310 Caves not open to the public, 9120 Atlantic acidophilous beech forests with Ilex and sometimes also Taxus in the shrub layer, 9180 Tilio-Acerion forests of slopes, screes and ravines and amongst riparian habitats, 91E0 Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior. IUCN identifies the main threat factors as collection, recreational activities (e.g. climbing), habitat destruction, unfavourable forest management (such as removal of undergrowth), modification of hydrological conditions, droughts/desiccation, and rubbish disposal, and advocates careful monitoring of populations. In Italy, logging and drought, due to surface water abstraction and climatic warming, have been specified as threats, whilst in Portugal, invasion of Acacia melanoxylon poses a threat.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/162169/0

Narciso de Sierra Nevada (in Spain) | Narcissus nevadensis

[id: 162]

Common name:

Narciso de Sierra Nevada (in Spain)

Scientific name:

Narcissus nevadensis

Where to find:

Riparian zone

Climate change impact:

Both subspecies are very vulnerable to climate change on the basis of their narrow altitudinal, eco-hydrological and geographical ranges.

Response description:

N. nevadensis is classified by IUCN as Endangered due to a restricted distribution, with an occupancy area of 33 km2 and confirmed presence in only 5 locations. Declines in the extent and quality of its habitat have been recorded (marked decreases in the Murcian endemic subspecies) due to modification of the hydrological regimes, grazing and human impact. Two subspecies are noted: N. nevadensis enemeritoi is endemic to Sierra de Villafuerte (Moratalla, Murcia) where it grows from 1,250-1,300 m asl, over ca 2 km2. Two populations were once described (though one of these has not been confirmed recently) and the total population in 2003 was ca 120 individuals. This subspecies grows on sandy dolomitic substrates within riparian vegetation of mountain streams where it grows in Lysimachio ephemeri-Holoschoenetum vulgaris (Habitats Directive type 6420). The main threats to the subspecies are modified hydrological regimes and watercourses as well as trampling, collection and predation by herbivores. N. n. nevadensis is endemic to Sierra Nevada and Sierra de Baza (Granada) where it grows between 1,400-1,950 m asl in just 4 locations with an occupancy area of 31 km2 and a total population size of 23,598 individuals (new subpopulations have been found recently). This subspecies grows on moist, seasonally flooded soils, mainly at the edges of small streams and springs with a southerly aspect. This very specific habitat makes it vulnerable to anthropogenic influences, climatic and hydrological changes and grazing is also an important threat as trampling and plant predation can reduce fruiting.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/61682/0

Rabanillo Cornudo, Jaramago de Cavanilles (Spain) | Sisymbrium cavanillesianum

[id: 228]

Common name:

Rabanillo Cornudo, Jaramago de Cavanilles (Spain)

Scientific name:

Sisymbrium cavanillesianum

Where to find:

Banks of streams in farmland

Climate change impact:

Somewhat vulnerable to climate change because it relies on open habitats associated with streams, though its ruderal nature may ensure its survival. The apparent requirement for spring and autumn rains could be disrupted by climate change, although whether this plant can really be termed riparian is somewhat doubtful.

Response description:

S. cavanillesianum is endemic to central and southern Iberia, with 2 disjoint centres (Madrid/Toledo and Albacete, 3 locations in each area and an overall occupancy of 17 km2) and was reported previously in Ciudad Real, Zaragoza and Granada. There is recent evidence of significant decreases in population size caused by drought events, although S. cavanillesianum populations tend to fluctuate due to climatic conditions and agricultural perturbation. The total population size has been estimated in 636408 individuals. It grows in secondary habitats, on clays or loams, frequently close to streams, within ruderal communities or communities associated with crop areas. As an annual/biennial, S. cavanillesianum reacts quickly to rains in spring and autumn, germinating profusely and quickly completing its cycle. Agricultural land abandonment threatens this plant as it is linked to agricultural activities, and changes in land use could affect it (e.g. field abandonment for installation of wind turbines). Other potential threats include herbicide use and excessive trampling, and it can also suffer from natural competition from related species. Some subpopulations have been affected by the construction of high-speed railways.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/162189/0

Theophrastus's Date Palm | Phoenix theophrasti

[id: 219]

Common name:

Theophrastus's Date Palm

Scientific name:

Phoenix theophrasti

Where to find:

Riparian zone

Climate change impact:

A vulnerable species to climate change on the basis of its very narrow bioclimatic range, limited populations and dependence on moist habitats associated with Mediterranean rivers - likely to be affected by drying up of seasonal streams.

Response description:

On Crete, there are eight subpopulations, the largest contains a few thousand individuals (There are 4 subpopulations in Anatolian Turkey). This palm tree is found in the sandy beds of temporary streams up to an altitude of 250 m.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/38630/0

Troodos Rockcress | Arabis kennedyae

[id: 169]

Common name:

Troodos Rockcress

Scientific name:

Arabis kennedyae

Where to find:

Margins of gullies

Climate change impact:

Extremely vulnerable to climate change due to a highly restricted range and dependence on banks of mountain streams, where summer drought and hydrochory are important.

Response description:

This plant grows from 900-1,350 m altitude on Tripylos Mountain (Troodos range, Cyprus) with 3 known subpopulations and a total of ca 100 individuals. A. kennedyae colonises rocky slopes, growing in semi-shaded, rocky streamside areas dominated by Quercus alnifolia and Pinus brutia. As an annual/biennial it is probably influenced by weather conditions in any one year with numbers fluctuating widely, surviving the summer drought in overall wetter years. Floating along streams contributes to dispersal. One subpopulation is subject to habitat destruction: picnic site, military exercises, road construction/widening and forest fires.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/61629/0

Waterwheel Plant | Aldrovanda vesiculosa

[id: 167]
[ID-fwe: 6]

Common name:

Waterwheel Plant

Scientific name:

Aldrovanda vesiculosa

Climate change impact:

There is little evidence that the almost universal decline in A. vesiculosa is related to climate and the extremely widespread historical range suggests wide tolerance. Thus though certainly declining in its riparian habitats, this trend results from factors other than climate.

Response description:

The IUCN Red List provides a detailed account of the distributional history of this plant in Europe, Asia and Africa (which see). Historically, A. vesiculosa occurred throughout western, central, southern, northern and eastern Europe, from coastal areas in western and southern France, throughout northern and central Italy, Austria and Germany to Poland, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Lichtenstein, Lithuania, Montenegro, Ukraine, Romania, Russia (Caucasus, Volga, Ussuri, Amur, Lipetsk and St Petersburg areas), Serbia, Slovakia and Turkey. It was scattered throughout Asia: Bangladesh, India, Manchuria, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Korea and Japan, south to East Timor and several coastal areas around Australia. In Africa, populations have been recorded in Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa, South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda and Zambia. Presently, this species is scarce in Europe: Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia (St Petersburg and Lipetsk areas), Serbia and Ukraine, as well as persisting in N and SE Australia, Botswana and South Africa. Habitats: Amongst the habitats cited for Europe in the comprehensive breakdown of the locations (past and present) of A. vesiculosa in the IUCN Red Lists are: lakes (sometimes on peaty floodplains and as oxbows), moats, fishponds, canals and drainage channels, creeks, river channels/margins, river deltas, amongst emergent reeds and swamps. There have been catastrophic declines in many countries of Europe with numerous extinctions. However, Lake Ladoga east of St Petersburg represents the largest and most stable extant site in the world (population estimated to be in the millions, with A. vesiculosa the dominant species). The IUCN habitat description refers to a wide variety, from small fens and billabongs to lakes, lagoons and river deltas. While infrequently observed in mesotrophic lakes and eutrophic habitats (e.g. fishponds and rice paddies), it is native to nutrient impoverished oligo-mesotrophic and dystrophic (humic) systems. The stenotopic nature and reliance upon carnivory limits the species distribution to specific microhabitats dominated by loose and species-poor plant communities. These are generally shallow backwaters or the littoral zone of larger lakes, where competition with other aquatic species forming dense stands is reduced or absent and are typically areas experiencing little variation in water level throughout the growing season. This species is extremely intolerant of habitat degradation, and even slight changes to water chemistry can result in local extinction. Climate: In terms of its relationship with climate, A. vesiculosa overwinters as turions that sink to the bottom of the water where temperatures are stable/warmer during winter, though losses occur as turions are washed ashore, grazed or killed by frost. In latitudes with very mild winters, it may grow year-round with no overwintering period. While plants from warmer climates are known to bloom more profusely/regularly, these flowers open only briefly and often fail to develop fruit. The primary dispersive agent in it is likely to be vegetative via stem fragments or turions, transported externally by birds between suitable habitats. Threats: According to a review (2011) of conservation threats to carnivorous plants, this species is threatened primarily by residential and commercial development, agriculture and aquaculture, natural systems modification and pollution. The Commission of the European Union (2009) also lists acidification, canalisation, desilting, drainage, eutrophication, forestry clearance, gravel extraction, mining, pollution, hydrological modification and limited dispersal. It is believed that some illegal trade also occurs in A. vesiculosa. Habitat degradation is common throughout the speciesà entire range, and very few sites, including those within conservation reserves, remain pristine.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/162346/0

Search for more information about this species or other macrophytes on freshwaterecology.info:

Autecological characteristics, ecological preferences, biological traits, distribution patterns

http://www.freshwaterecology.info/TaxaDB_mphSearch.php

Macroinvertebrates

Asian clam | Corbicula fluminea

[id: 70]
[ID-fwe: 11176]

Common name:

Asian clam

Scientific name:

Corbicula fluminea

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Winner

Climate change impact:

Higher winter temperatures, Eutrophication

More about the species:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corbicula_fluminea

Search for more information about this species or other macroinvertebrates on freshwaterecology.info:

Autecological characteristics, ecological preferences, biological traits, distribution patterns

http://www.freshwaterecology.info/TaxaDB_mzbSearch.php

European physa | Physella acuta

[id: 71]
[ID-fwe: 6396]

Common name:

European physa

Scientific name:

Physella acuta

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Winner

Climate change impact:

Increased water temperature, reduced flow velocity

Search for more information about this species or other macroinvertebrates on freshwaterecology.info:

Autecological characteristics, ecological preferences, biological traits, distribution patterns

http://www.freshwaterecology.info/TaxaDB_mzbSearch.php

Greater European peaclam | Pisidium amnicum

[id: 102]
[ID-fwe: 6409]

Common name:

Greater European peaclam

Scientific name:

Pisidium amnicum

Will it be a winner or a loser:

Loser

Climate change impact:

Increased water temperature, low summer flow

Response description:

The sphaeriid Pisidium amnicum is a common freshwater clam in Europe, occurring mainly in the northern and central European countries. High temperatures, low summer flow and competition with invasive species (such as Corbicula fluminea) could result in a significant reduction of its population, particularly in warmer regions where events of water scarcity and high temperatures are expected to become more frequent.

More about the species:

http://www.animalbase.uni-goettingen.de/zooweb/servlet/AnimalBase/home/species?id=1659

Reference:

Domisch S., Jaehnig S.C. and Haase P. (2011) Climate-change winners and losers: stream macroinvertebrates of a submontane region in Central Europe. Freshwater Biology 56, 2009-2020.
Sousa, R., M. Ilarri, A. T. Souza, C. Antunes, and L. Guilhermino, 20

Search for more information about this species or other macroinvertebrates on freshwaterecology.info:

Autecological characteristics, ecological preferences, biological traits, distribution patterns

http://www.freshwaterecology.info/TaxaDB_mzbSearch.php

Mammals

Cabrera's Vole | Microtus cabrerae

[id: 207]

Common name:

Cabrera's Vole

Scientific name:

Microtus cabrerae

Where to find:

Meadows

Climate change impact:

Climate change has not been cited as a threat by the IUCN, but any resultant changes to the extent of streams and wet meadows used by the vole could affect its abundance.

Response description:

M. cabrerae is endemic to the Iberian peninsula, where it has a fragmented range. It occurs from 0 to 1,500 m, although it is most common below 1200 m. In Spain, populations in the south have recently disappeared. It occurs in pastures, fields and open clearings in woodland, tending to prefer damper areas than the common vole. It is often found in proximity to water and on road verges. Meadows and perennial grassland communities are the most favourable microhabitats for this species. Agricultural intensification, including overgrazing, has presumably contributed to range contractions and fragmentation over the last few decades. There is increased pressure on streams and other wetland areas the species occurs in. Inter-specific competition with Arvicola sapidus may be a problem.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/13418/0

Long-fingered Bat | Myotis capaccinii

[id: 211]

Common name:

Long-fingered Bat

Scientific name:

Myotis capaccinii

Where to find:

Wetlands and Rivers (Foraging)

Climate change impact:

Vulnerable to climate change where this might lead to drying up of the Mediterranean and karstic wetlands and rivers over which the bat forages

Response description:

M. capaccinii is sparsely distributed from eastern Iberia, Spain through the northern Mediterranean to coastal Asia Minor and Israel, Lebanon and Jordan, and also in Mesopotamia from Turkey to Iran and in north-west Africa (limited to the Mediterranean fringe of western Maghreb: north Morocco and northwest Algeria). It occurs from sea level to 900 m, foraging over wetlands and waterways (including artificial water-bodies, such as canals and reservoirs), also scrub. It generally roosts in underground habitats (principally caves). In the Balkans it is confined to karst areas. Movements between summer and winter colonies are mostly within a distance of 50 km (maximum 140 km: Hutterer et al. 2005). Threats include changes in water quality through pollution and dam building, and loss of water bodies and watercourses. Damage or disturbance to caves (tourism, fires and vandalism) used as roosts may also be a problem, as the species is very dependent on caves. The species is collected for medicinal purposes in North Africa.

More about the species:

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/14126/0



Climate Change and Freshwater
Online: http://www.climate-and-freshwater.info/climate_change/wetlands/warm/affected_species/
Date: 2017/05/27
© 2017 University of Duisburg-Essen | Faculty of Biology, Aquatic Ecology, All rights reserved.